Supervising Editor Q & A

Lisa Fruchtman is an Academy Award-winning film editor who has worked on films such as Apocalypse Now, The Right Stuff, Children of a Lesser God, The Godfather 3, The Doctor, My Best Friend’s Wedding and The Woodsman.

In addition to her Oscar for editing The Right Stuff, Lisa received Academy Award and BAFTA nominations for Best Editing for both Godfather 3 and Apocalypse Now, as well as an Emmy Nomination and a cable ACE award for Truman. Her work for Children of a Lesser God was nominated for Best Picture.

In the following interview, Lisa discusses why she gravitated toward film editing and what she thinks kids could learn from Cinderella Moon. She also talks about her upcoming documentary about women in Rwanda.

Q: You have an amazing resume. How did you get your start?

LF: I started out in documentary film, but I wasn’t headed in that direction originally. I had thought of going to law school, or even going into science. But I apprenticed for the first documentary film collective in the country, and when I arrived in the Bay Area, my first feature film job was as an apprentice on Godfather 2.

Also, I think having a model is important, and at the beginning of my career I saw women editors and realized that could be me. Editing fits my mental style. It combines analytical and creative skills, and really is a writing and rewriting process. You’re not just working with a blank page. At a certain point, I realized, “I’m good at this.”

Q: I think even people who love cinema don’t often think that much about how editing — as much as shooting —  is an integral part of what goes into the artistry of film making. Can you talk about it a little?

LF: What I think most people don’t understand is that film doesn’t exist before it’s edited. My favorite analogy is that a film is like a quilt. You can have the colors and patterns, but it doesn’t exist until you put it all together. Editing helps to frame your movie-watching experience. As an editor I ask, do I choose a long-shot or a closeup? What do I focus on? The speaker? The listener? Every decision helps create the film; otherwise, it’s in fragments. Once it’s edited, you might wonder: how could it have been any other way? But really, it could have been any of number of other films. An editor helps create the film’s dramatic arc.

Filmmaking is an alive process. At each stage, it acquires a new layer. If the director and cinematographer only shot things as they were written, or the actors only read their lines with the directions they’re given, it wouldn’t be the same thing.

Q: How did you become involved with Cinderella Moon?

LF: Richard and I met 25 years ago on a film his wife Jenny directed that he shot: Street Music. They knew I had experience shaping films from the story point of view, and asked me to participate.

Q: Are there different considerations that go into editing a film like Apocalypse Now versus a romantic comedy like My Best Friend’s Wedding, or a film in the magic realism style like Cinderella Moon?

LF: Yes and no. As an editor, I’m in a responsive position. My mindset is that I’m responding to the quality of the story, the actors, the intention of the director. Every film is different, but what you’re trying to tease out is the film’s emotional resonance, the director’s original intent.

Q: Cinderella Moon was shot digitally. How did that affect the editing?

Cinderella Moon was filmed in digital on a Red camera, and the finished product is exquisite. Shooting in digital made it malleable from the point of view of special effects. In the old days, you paid a fortune to optical houses, and you couldn’t even do that until the film was finished. Being able to work both with digital and with Max Chan as an assistant (who’s talented as a special effects person, computer guy, and translator), things were much easier. I’d say, “Let’s try this with the sun and moon,” for example, and he’d go to the other room and try it out, come back — and if we could use it, we would. Fantastic compared to the old days!

Q: What was is like editing a film that was shot in Chinese? Do you think there are differences in how Chinese films are edited versus films made by Americans? Is there a national “style” of editing?

I think there is a style of film that’s culturally based. Richard succeeded in making a film that’s in Chinese, that’s visually stunning, about a little girl in a long-ago China, yet he was also able to get performances that are accessible to a Western audience. It was easy for me to read the actors’ performance and to choose their best moments.  All of this was due to Richard’s skillful direction. Richard’s also a sophisticated craftsman and has a lot of knowledge about film as well as a respect for its different crafts, including mine.

Q: Not a lot of films are explicitly feminist. Any thoughts about working on a film, as a woman, whose message is that girls are as good as boys?

LF: As a woman and a feminist, I think Cinderella Moon’s message is a great thing to put out in the world. It might be trickier in China than here, but I also think that ultimately the message of Cinderella Moon goes out to all kids: to be all that you can be.

Q: What projects are you working on now?

LF: I’ve gone back to documentary filmmaking. I’m the director, producer, and editor of a documentary with my brother about Rwanda. Specifically, about the women there who are redefining their lives and emerging from the genocide there. They’re the first women drummers in Rwanda and they’re opening an ice cream shop.

Q: What’s the film called?

LF: Sweet Dreams. That’s the name of their ice cream shop, whose sign reads, “Sweet Dreams: Ice Cream, Coffee and Dreams.”

Q & A With Richard

Q: Cinderella Moon is based on the first, ancient Chinese version of the Cinderella story, from 768 AD. How did you find out about it, and how did it reach the world?

RB:   The story from which Cinderella Moon was adapted was written in southern China, about seven centuries before the story first appeared in Europe. After hearing of its existence, I hired a researcher and scoured the antiquities libraries in Beijing. We found it in the ancient text, had it translated, and sure enough, it was the Cinderella story we’re all familiar with, but with very interesting, very Chinese twists and turns.

Academics figure it likely traveled to Europe over the Tea Horse Trail (the horse-caravan trade route between southern China and Tibet, the equivalent of the Silk Road that originated in northern China). In fact, the area of Yunnan Province where we shot is dotted with towns and villages that are along the this ancient trail.

Q:   Why do you think the original Chinese Cinderella story is of interest to a contemporary audience?

RB:   Cinderella is one of the world’s favorite fairy tales, and Cinderella Moon presents its original telling for the first time ever on film. Many of us in the west find ourselves fascinated with China and things Chinese, so I think it’s illuminating to see how a story we had thought of as western, is so eastern at heart.

Also, in Cinderella Moon, the stakes are much higher for Mei Mei, the Cinderella figure, than whether or not she’ll find Prince Charming. The film turns out to be more contemporary and relevant to the lives of girls today than the Cinderella we grew up thinking was the real thing. Rather than simply being “saved” by a man, the Chinese Cinderella saves herself, and in the process, saves the man and her world.

Fairy tales have morals, and the moral of this story is that girls are as good as boys.  It may sound obvious to us, but this belief is, sadly, still not shared by the whole world.  Thankfully, it’s on the rise in all but the most backward of societies.

Q:   Why did you, as an American director, want to make this film? 


RB:   My commitment to making this film grew directly out of my personal life and a social issue I’m deeply involved in. I have two adopted Chinese daughters and I’ve worked extensively with Half the Sky Foundation, an NGO Jenny started in 1998 that helps orphans in China.

When I learned that the world’s first telling of the Cinderella story was from China, I knew this was a film I could and in fact had to make. I felt that if I could film a fairy tale with this social issue at its core, I could bring a wonderful story to the world and maybe have some kind of impact on a social problem dear to my heart.

Q:   What is the creative connection between Cinderella Moon and Half the Sky?

RB:   The most valuable thing I’ve learned from Half the Sky is that the weakest among us have the most to teach. In my work with our foundation, I’m always struck by how brave and resilient these little girls are, despite their understandable fear. What they’re dealing with at their ages is hard to imagine, but do deal with it, some better than others, but all in a way that’s illuminating. I’ve been deeply inspired watching the children of Half the Sky, how the human spirit endures and persists no matter how bleak its circumstances. That observation has informed every part of this film.

Q:   Where are the various locations and why did you choose them?

RB:  While Cinderella is a magical fable, I worked hard for Cinderella Moon to have a very rigorous photo-real feel in order to accentuate the “magic realism” at the heart of the original Chinese version of the story. All my Chinese film-making friends advised me not to attempt this shoot in an actual rural location. They said it’d be too tough. Most period films in China are shot on back lots with a few second-unit landscapes. But I’m too drawn to realism for that, and besides, as a westerner, I couldn’t imagine making a film on the other side of the world on a back lot.

I found the perfect location — very magical, very realistic — in the northern reaches of the most south-western province in China, called Yunnan. This is the Tibetan plateau (most of the film was shot within a few hundred miles of Tibet) and the setting for James Hilton’s Lost Horizon. The area is known within China as “Shangri-La” and its mountainous landscape is epic and breathtaking.

Aside from northern Yunnan’s beauty, it’s also an area of China that has largely escaped the ravages of modern development, so it was possible to stitch together a believable world from long ago using a number of locations in that area. Of course, we were a couple thousand miles inland, so the seashore and King’s island had to be created in the computer from architectural elements shot in Yunnan and combined with coastal elements from Hong Kong, northern China and even California.

Q:   Have you screened Cinderella Moon to Chinese audiences? If so, what did they think?

RB: I worked hard to maintain the original Chinese-ness of this Cinderella while keeping it accessible to a non-Chinese audience. It’s no surprise to me that Chinese viewers know immediately that Cinderella Moon was not made by a Chinese director. The feedback so far is that Chinese audiences feel it’s an accurate and sympathetic take on their culture as seen from the outside.

Q:   Tell us about the casting.

RB:  More time was spent on the Cinderella search than any other pre-production activity; I cast all over China for about two years, and I saw easily more than a 1000 girls. I knew that without a great Cinderella the film would fail. We found Xiao Min in Chengu (southern China) just about ready to graduate from a performing arts school. I couldn’t believe how great her audition tape was and immediately flew her up to Beijing. We hit it off and I was certain she could do it.

I wanted the archetypal characters in this fairytale to be sharply drawn and somewhat extreme. Clear character types are appropriate to fairy tales and transcend cultures, so again, this was another way Cinderella Moon could be global. I purposely cast actors whose characters would be immediately recognizable types worldwide. The story deals with some pretty serious issues, and I also felt that watching fun characters would be critical to the lightness I wanted to work into the film.

The cast of 16 main roles comes from four different areas in China. Some are seasoned character actors, a few had studied acting but never had been in a film.  I also cast several non-pros… a waitress, a truck driver, a couple of farmers.

Q:  Why did you choose to have Cinderella Moon look the way it does, and how did you establish the look?

I made Cinderella Moon in the style of magic realism, which I tried to infuse into every part of the film, especially the way the film looks. Wild and unbelievable things happen throughout the film; magic is at the story’s core. However, I felt that since the story was set in ancient China, the magic shouldn’t feel like an unusual occurrence, but natural. In an ancient Chinese fairytale world, magic should be a natural part of everyday life, experienced as an ancient mind believing in magic might experience it.

Also, my visual bias and the needs of the story both required that the film look deeply realistic: real looking characters, sets, landscapes, and wardrobe. But, being a fairytale, the film’s world needed to look unique, self-contained, make-believe, and magical.

Every visual element was real, but the way its all put together is total fantasy.

Origins of the Story

Did You Know That Cinderella Was Originally Chinese?

A little over 1200 years ago in the remote mountains of southern China, a merchant named Tuan Cheng Shih set brush to paper and recorded the world’s first known telling of the Cinderella story.

He lived in a wild frontier that today we call Yunnan province, beyond the border of the Tang Dynasty (618-907), in a magical area often described as paradise on earth, or Shangri-La.

The Tang Dynasty existed during China’s Golden Age, a time when its culture reached a pinnacle that many think has never again been matched. Science, art and commerce were flourishing, the empire was expanding, and the capital Xian was the largest city in the world, ruling an empire with a population of 50 million.

But life wasn’t so good for half of that population: women and girls. Society was based around the family, and men ruled their families with an iron hand. Most wives were little more than servants whose main job was to give their husbands sons. Girls were considered of little value.

It’s no surprise, then, that the Cinderella story — about a girl growing up without a family in a family-based society that only valued boys — would remain obscure in the country of its birth. But somehow it survived, and over the next 800 years, it found its way to the west. Many guess that it started that long journey by crossing the Himalayas along the ancient Tea Horse Trail.

Cinderella: From China to Europe to Burbank, California

It eventually arrived in Renaissance Europe, a culture steeped in chivalry and romantic love. After a few hundred years of re-writes, Cinderella became a damsel-in-distress who gets rescued by a prince in a castle after enduring cruelties worthy of the Dark Ages. France, Italy and Germany all claimed the poor orphaned girl as their own and no one had any idea that she was born in the far east.

Fast forward to Burbank, California, 1951, and Cinderella’s western makeover was complete. According to the Hollywood cartoon we grew up with, a girl’s best shot at living a fulfilled life was to attract a handsome and powerful man who’d whisk her into fantasy-land and fulfill all her needs.

Cinderella Moon: It’s Beyond Prince Charming

A half century later, in 2005, veteran Hollywood cinematographer Richard Bowen was living in Beijing with his wife, Jenny, and two adopted daughters. They had moved to China to expand the work of their burgeoning non-profit, Half the Sky, a foundation that helps children living in Chinese orphanages.

When Richard heard that scholars had determined that the first datable Cinderella story was written in China in 768 AD, he was intrigued by the connection between the work with orphans his family was doing in China and the fact that the quintessential orphan story originated there. He tracked down the original text in a dusty antiquities museum in Beijing (you can see the original manuscript above), and pretty soon, he was hard at work adapting a screenplay in the style of magic realism, perfectly suited to its ancient Chinese setting.

By enriching the original ancient tale of a mistreated girl with elements of Chinese cosmology, Cinderella Moon restores this ancient fairy tale to its original Chinese roots. Its story is recognizable but, ironically, more relevant to today’s world than the modern, westernized version most of us know.